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A 45 year old male patient underwent surgery to his left ear two weeks ago. He recently developed fits and a disturbed conscious level. I have updated his MRI Views what are your findings? 

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☑️☑️COVID -19 Question and Answers! 

•• How are COVID-19 vaccines authorized and approved for use?

✅✅Researchers began developing vaccines for COVID-19 in January 2020, based on decades of understanding immune response and how vaccines work. Thousands of volunteers participated in clinical trials that started that spring, making sure we can trust the vaccines to be safe and effective.

Based on the results, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) authorized two vaccines for public use in December 2020 and a third in February 2021. The vaccines met the agency’s rigorous and science-based standards for quality, safety, and effectiveness.

COVID-19 is a new virus requiring new vaccines, but vaccines have been saving lives and protecting us for centuries. Now, medical experts believe COVID-19 vaccines can help us move forward in our everyday lives.

•• What is a clinical trial?

✅✅A clinical trial is a research study that helps to make sure a new treatment or vaccine is safe and effective in humans.

•• How are vaccines tested for safety?

✅✅Every vaccine must go through rigorous testing and inspection to ensure it is safe.

Vaccines for COVID-19 followed a 3-phase process where there are several stages before FDA authorization:

Phase 1: The vaccine is tested in a small number of generally healthy adults, usually between 20 and 80 people. It’s evaluated for safety, dosage, and any side effects. Experts also look at what type of immune response is created.

Phase 2: If there are no safety concerns from Phase I studies, the vaccine is given in various dosages to hundreds of adults who may have a variety of health issues and come from different backgrounds to make sure it is safe. These studies provide additional safety information on common short-term side effects and risks, examine the relationship between the dose given and the immune response, and may provide initial information regarding the effectiveness of the vaccine.

Phase 3: Experts broaden the study to include thousands of adults, from a variety of ages and backgrounds. They see how many people who got the vaccine were protected from the disease, compared to those who received a placebo.

After a vaccine is authorized by the FDA and made available to the public, experts continue to keep track of data to help us learn more about questions like whether vaccinated people can still get infected without having symptoms.

How emergency use authorization works (FDA)
How do vaccines get approved or authorized?

✅✅Vaccines are approved or authorized by the FDA, which sets strict standards for clinical trials and rigorously evaluates scientific data submitted by vaccine developers.

Doctors and medical experts with many years of experience regulating vaccines evaluated information about the safety, effectiveness, and manufacturing quality of the vaccines prior to making their decision. They determined that the known and potential benefits of the vaccines outweigh any known or potential risks.

Two of the authorized vaccines are approved for people 18 and older, and the other is authorized for people 16 and older. Since children under age 16 were not part of the initial tests for these vaccines, neither vaccine is recommended for children at this time.

Researchers made sure that the trials included adults of diverse backgrounds, races, ethnicities, and geographic areas. They collaborated with faith leaders, community organizations, and health clinics to reach volunteers from many different walks of life across the United States.

Medical experts and doctors want to make sure the vaccines work safely and effectively for as many people as possible. People may respond differently to vaccines based on factors like age, gender, and health conditions — so it is important to have a diverse group of participants in clinical trials.

COVID-19 has hit hard in the Black and Hispanic communities. Historically, these populations haven’t always been included in clinical research, but with COVID-19 vaccines researchers made sure volunteers included people of color, as well as people over the age of 65 who are at higher risk of complications from the virus.

At this time, the studies do not include pregnant women or young children, but testing with those groups will likely begin in the near future. Pregnant women who get infected with COVID-19 disease are more likely to have severe disease.

People who are pregnant and part of a group recommended to receive COVID-19 vaccine, such as healthcare personnel, may choose to be vaccinated. A conversation between pregnant patients and their clinicians may help them decide whether to get vaccinated.


•• How were these vaccines made so quickly?

✅✅The science behind the breakthrough had a head start. Researchers had already made progress developing vaccines for other types of coronaviruses: they applied lessons learned after the 2003 SARS epidemic and the 2012 MERS outbreak. They also learned a lot from creating a vaccine for Ebola — which isn’t a coronavirus but has taught us more about viruses.

The rapid spread of COVID-19 made developing these vaccines an international priority, unlocking billions of dollars in funding to ensure safety while moving with urgency to save lives.

Many researchers and medical experts have come together to develop the vaccine while still meeting the FDA’s rigorous requirements for safety and effectiveness. While regulators have streamlined some steps in the vaccine authorization process, the vaccines still needed to meet the agency’s rigorous, scientific standards for safety, effectiveness, and manufacturing quality.

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#DIAGNOSIS OF ONYCHOMYCOSIS#

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# APPROACH# ??

A 55 -year-old female patient reported to us with chief complaints of pain and irritation in the left cheek region with foul pungent smell and worms crawling out of the wound present on the left cheek region. Pain was continuous in nature and moderate in intensity. The patient gives a personal history of chewing pan for the past 30 years. There was no significant medical and dental history. On examination, an ulceroproliferative growth of 4.5 cm × 3.5 cm in the left cheek was seen with necrosis at the center and erythema at margins. Growth was hard and fixed in consistency with communication to the oral cavity and maxillary antrum. Maggots were present in the lesion which became more evident after turpentine oil treatment. Intraorally, the lesion extended from angle of mouth to retromolar trigone and from upper gingivobuccal sulcus to lower gingivobuccal sulcus. How to proceed the case?  

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Aman in his 70s with a history of multiple prior ST-segment elevation myocardial infarctions (STEMIs) and squamous cell carcinoma of the lung with metastatic disease to the brain and myocardium presented to the emergency department with progressive dyspnea on exertion. Ten months prior, the patient developed chest pain and was found to have an inferior STEMI from late in-stent thrombosis, for which he received 2 drug-eluting stents to the right coronary artery. A subsequent transthoracic echocardiogram demonstrated preserved left ventricular systolic function without regional wall motion abnormalities, a moderate pericardial effusion, and a new 2.8 × 2.6-cm mass in the left ventricular mid-apical anteroseptum consistent with a metastatic myocardial tumor. Describe the findings on Transthoracic Echocardiogram and ECG as Updated.

What is the cause for patients Anteroseptal STE?  

Comment below in Discussion sections. 

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